Bourghava's disciple, Gorter, found this feature in all living things, even in animals, and distinguished it from the soul and nervous fluid or spirits. Albert Haller studied more precisely the laws of irritability and its correlation with other forces of the organism. His bibliographic writings represent veritable miracles of reading; in them he sets out the works of his predecessors and contemporaries with remarkable accuracy and impartiality. Haller distributed tissues and organs according to the degree of sensitivity and irritability, recognized the independence of both properties; he attributed sensitivity to the differences in nerves, and he separated irritability from elasticity. His experiments were repeated, and the doctrine of irritability became the starting point for new views. Howbius put irritability at the basis of all pathology, which he explained various diseases.